The mesmerizing and intricate formations, alongside the vivacious and copious cultural heritage of Persian art, have beguiled the planet. These artistic expressions have metamorphosed and progressed over millennia, encompassing the diverse influences of various civilizations and historical epochs. From the antiquated epoch of Persia to the contemporary times of Iran, stunning Iranian and Persian art persistently stimulates and fascinates art enthusiasts globally.
The area of art history is critical, as it offers valuable insights into the development and evolution of artistic expressions and their profound impact on society. The chronicle of Iranian and Persian art, in particular, is intriguing, as it exposes the intricate interplay of cultural, religious, and political influences that have shaped these art forms throughout the ages.
In this comprehensive write-up, we aspire to scrutinize the manifold and rich history of Persian art. We intend to explore the diversified artistic styles, techniques, and mediums utilized in Iranian and Persian art, along with the cultural and historical contexts that have played a significant role in their evolution. Our odyssey commences with a brief introduction to Persian art, followed by a detailed examination of its development over the years, right from the pre-Islamic era to the present times.
The significance of Persian art history cannot be overstated. It provides us with a distinctive and captivating outlook to comprehend the rich cultural heritage of Iran and its people. Through a thorough comprehension of the history of Iranian and Persian art, we can gain a profound appreciation for the artistic and cultural traditions that continue to mold this region, leaving a lasting influence on the world at large. We invite you to join us on this exhilarating expedition through time and culture as we explore the spellbinding and bewitching realm of Persian art history.
Pre-Islamic Persian Art
The epoch of pre-Islamic Persia represented an age of unprecedented artistic expression and novelty, where Persian art bloomed to incomparable degrees. The art of that period was deeply influenced by the prevalent religion of that time, Zoroastrianism, which bestowed immense significance upon the veneration of nature and its constituents.
The Persian art of that era stood out due to its extensive array of art forms, which encompassed metalwork, ceramics, and textiles. The intricately fashioned designs and exquisite craftsmanship of Persian metalwork earned it extraordinary renown, while the ornate patterns and opulent hues of Persian ceramics were widely esteemed. The vivid colors and intricate weaving patterns of the textiles from that epoch also amassed tremendous admiration.
Additionally, the Persian art of that era was also noteworthy for its remarkable architectural masterpieces, including the renowned Persepolis complex. The Persepolis complex serves as a testament to the pre-Islamic Persians’ artistry and engineering acumen, boasting towering columns, intricate carvings, and sprawling palaces.
Pre-Islamic Persian art manifested the opulent cultural heritage of Persia, stressing nature, mythology, and divinity. It was a time of extraordinary artistic achievement and innovative splendor, establishing the groundwork for the continued evolution of Persian art in the forthcoming centuries.
Major characteristics of pre-Islamic Persian art
The epoch of pre-Islamic Persia, an era characterized by unparalleled artistic expression and ingenuity, witnessed a thriving magnificence in Persian art. The art of this period underwent heavy influence by the dominant religion of that time, Zoroastrianism, which prioritized the veneration of nature and the elements.
Pre-Islamic Persian art boasts a diverse range of art forms, spanning from metalwork to ceramics and textiles. Persian metalwork, celebrated for its exceptional intricacy and detailed craftsmanship, resonated with people’s emotions, while Persian ceramics were revered for their elaborate patterns and vivid hues. Persian textiles were also widely acknowledged for their vivid colors and intricate weaving patterns, a true testament to the creative mastery of Persian weavers.
Apart from these art forms, the Persian art of this era also earned fame for its awe-inspiring architectural structures, including the renowned Persepolis complex. The Persepolis complex stands as a tribute to the artistic and engineering skills of pre-Islamic Persians, with its towering columns, intricate carvings, and sprawling palaces.
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Examples of pre-Islamic Persian art
The epoch of pre-Islamic Persia marked an abundant period of artistic expression and ground-breaking innovation, with Persian art thriving in a diverse multitude of forms, each endowed with its distinct style and techniques. One of the most noteworthy examples of pre-Islamic Persian art is the awe-inspiring Pasargadae citadel, a venerable edifice nestled in the Fars Province of Iran, which was erected eons ago during the bygone Achaemenid period. Its inception is owed to none other than the sagacious Cyrus the Great, who, in his infinite wisdom, sought to erect a bastion to serve as both his domicile and administrative headquarters.
The edifice itself is comprised of a multitude of buildings and structures, among which are the Audience Hall, the Presidential Palace, and the Tomb of Cyrus. The citadel, to this day, is widely celebrated for its breathtaking architecture, replete with intricate reliefs, carvings, and embellishments, as well as a plethora of lush gardens and water features. Its cultural and historical importance, attesting to the indomitable influence of the Achaemenid Empire, cannot be overstated. As a result, it has become a veritable magnet for visitors and tourists alike, its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site serving as a testament to its allure and splendor.
Moreover, pre-Islamic Persian metalwork and jewelry are yet another remarkable manifestations of artistic excellence. Persian metalworkers were renowned for their adeptness in crafting intricate designs and patterns on valuable metals such as gold and silver. These masterpieces were frequently adorned with stunning gemstones and pearls and were highly sought after by the prosperous members of Persian society.
In addition, Persian ceramics also left an indelible imprint on the art world for their intricate and elaborate designs and their astonishing range of colors. Persian potters employed a diverse array of techniques, including slip painting and carving, to manufacture exquisite vessels that were both practical and ornamental. During the 4th century BCE, Persian pottery was particularly influenced by Hellenistic styles.
Similarly, Persian textiles were equally venerated for their intricate and captivating designs and striking hues. Persian weavers utilized an array of techniques, such as embroidery and tapestry, to create intricate patterns and scenes on woolen and silk textiles. These textiles were held in high regard and were often presented as gifts to foreign dignitaries and members of the Persian elite.
Influence of Zoroastrianism on pre-Islamic Persian art
Zoroastrianism, an archaic religion that was initiated in Persia, had a deep-seated impact on pre-Islamic Persian artistry. The dualistic view of religion, which accentuated the altercation between righteousness and malevolence, was manifested in the artistry of that epoch. The Naqsh-e Rustam’s ancient rock reliefs, portraying the Zoroastrian king Darius the Great and his cohorts battling their adversaries, are one of the most prominent instances of this influence.
In these reliefs, Darius and his allies are depicted standing on the carcasses of their foes, who were illustrated as evil entities. The reliefs further portray diverse religious observances, including the king’s investiture by the god Ahura Mazda. The stylized silhouettes in the reliefs, with their intricate garments and headwear, are also representative of pre-Islamic Persian artistry.
The decorative patterns utilized in the architecture of that era also evince the impact of Zoroastrianism on pre-Islamic Persian artistry. Numerous motifs were derived from the Zoroastrian iconography, such as the winged disc of Ahura Mazda and the Faravahar, which was a symbol of the Zoroastrian god of sagacity and defender of humanity.
Islamic Persia and Persian art
The era of Islamic Persia denotes the historical phase of Persia that was inaugurated with the Arab conquest of Iran during the 7th century and persisted until the foundation of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. During this period, Islam ensued as the paramount religion in Persia, and its effect can be perceived in the evolution of Islamic Persian art. The intricate geometric and floral designs, calligraphy, and the application of vivid colors are the distinguished features of Islamic Persian art.
The Islamic faith had a profound impact on Islamic Persian art, which disallowed the representation of living beings in religious contexts. Therefore, this led to the emergence of complex geometric and floral designs that were utilized to embellish various architectural structures, manuscripts, and other forms of artwork. Furthermore, Islamic Persian art laid considerable emphasis on calligraphy, wherein beautiful Arabic scripts were employed to express religious texts and convey other messages.
The application of vibrant colors constitutes another prominent attribute of Islamic Persian art. Bright blues, greens, and reds were extensively used in numerous artworks, and each color conveyed a distinct concept or emotion. For instance, blue typically symbolized the sky and heaven, while green was linked to nature and growth.
Major characteristics of Islamic Persian art
The exceptionally fine cultural legacy of Islamic Persian art is an exquisitely multifarious and intricate tapestry that emerged after the Islamic invasion of Persia in the 7th century. Islamic art was profoundly impacted by antecedent Persian art forms and methodologies, culminating in an exceptional confluence of Islamic and Persian styles. The resultant art form splendidly reflected the strong cultural identity of the Islamic Persian civilization, known for its fervent devotion to beauty, artistry, and culture.
The technique of making beautifully written words, or calligraphy, is an awe-inspiring aspect of Islamic Iranian Art. Islamic calligraphy has played a significant role in Islamic art for many years and is renowned for its unmatched elegance in Islamic Persian art. Its use has been expanded to include the ornamentation of a variety of objects, including books and Qurans, buildings, and textiles.
The astonishing characteristic of Islamic Persian art lies in the opulent deployment of color. Islamic craftsmen employed a vast array of vibrant hues, comprising azure, verdant, and citrine shades, to engender intricate and multi colored motifs. Furthermore, gold and silver were regularly employed to emphasize the details and confer an air of extravagance to the artwork.
Ultimately, Islamic Persian art is renowned for its elaborately detailed miniature paintings. These diminutive paintings frequently illustrate historical and religious scenarios and are fashioned using diverse techniques, such as watercolor and ink on paper. The level of precision and complexity of these miniature paintings is truly remarkable, affording a glimpse into the plentiful cultural heritage of Islamic Persia.
Examples of Islamic Persian art
Islamic Persian art, a variegated and opulent domain, burgeoned in the aftermath of the advent of Islam in Persia in the 7th century. Islamic artists in Persia drew on an amalgamation of pre-Islamic Persian and Arab styles, as well as the artistic traditions of other Islamic regions, such as the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus and the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. This fusion of divergent styles and influences produced a sui generis and distinct form of Islamic art that is still the object of admiration and scholarly study today.
One of the most visually arresting specimens of Islamic Persian art is the intricate and ornate tilework that graces mosques, palaces, and other edifices throughout the region. Persian tilework usually boasts intricate geometric patterns, floral motifs, and calligraphic inscriptions in vivid and stunning hues. The employment of lively blues and greens, in particular, serves as a hallmark of Persian tilework.
Another emblematic feature of Islamic Persian art is Persian miniature painting, which reached the apogee of its splendor during the Safavid dynasty in the 16th and 17th centuries. Persian miniature paintings are distinguished by their minute size, ornate details, and use of brilliant colors. They typically portray scenes from quotidian life, epic narratives, or religious themes and often include intricate landscapes, elaborate architecture, and intricate patterns.
Renowned for its magnificent penmanship, Islamic Iranian craftsmanship is extensively commemorated for its intricate and exquisite handwriting, manifesting in sundry contexts such as theological literature, manuscripts, pottery, and metallic handicrafts. Iranian handwriting, typically distinguished by its fluid and stylized cursive, exhibits a wide range of styles and scripts such as Nastaliq, Thuluth, and Kufic.
Apart from these, Islamic Persian art exhibits a diverse range of styles and media such as metalwork, woodcarving, textiles, and ceramics, used for architectural details or decorative objects. Attention to detail, vibrant hues, and complex patterns distinguish Islamic Persian art, mirroring the area’s artistic richness and cultural diversity.
Influence of Islamic culture on Persian art
The profundity of Islamic culture’s influence on Persian art is evident in the diverse forms and expressions it took. Islamic art, renowned for its intricate geometric patterns, abstract motifs, and calligraphy, was integrated into Persian art in a myriad of ways. Furthermore, Islamic architecture, which placed great emphasis on the use of arches, minarets, and domes, was a major influence on Persian architecture, culminating in the creation of awe-inspiring structures like the Shah Mosque in Isfahan and the Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad.
In addition, Islamic culture also left its mark on Persian literature, which had long been feted for its poetic traditions. Islamic literature introduced novel themes and styles, such as mystical and religious poetry, which had an indelible impact on the work of Persian poets like Rumi and Hafiz. Calligraphy, a critical component of Islamic art, also became a popular form of expression in Persian art, with calligraphers crafting works of art that were not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply meaningful.
The inescapable veracity remains that the impact of Islamic culture on the realm of Persian art cannot be denied. The infusion of Islamic art into the Persian artistic milieu brought with it fresh approaches, patterns, and subjects, which served to augment its cultural and artistic terrain. The amalgamation of these two seemingly disparate art forms fostered a matchless and heterogeneous artistic legacy that has endured to this day, serving as a wellspring of inspiration for creators and aficionados of art worldwide.
Differences between pre-Islamic and Islamic Persian art
The formidable Islamic incursion of Persia during the 7th century exerted a momentous impact on Persian art, ushering in a multitude of transformations in style, motifs, and methods. Preceding Islamic Persia’s art was considerably influenced by the polytheistic beliefs of the antique Persians and their Zoroastrian faith, which was demonstrated through a fixation on the natural realm, including animals, plants, and humans, often depicted in a highly stylized form adorned with elaborate motifs and designs.
In stark contrast, Islamic Persian art was molded by the Islamic faith’s injunctions against representational art, thereby stressing the importance of calligraphy, geometric patterns, and arabesques, which were considered a means of expressing the divine through decoration and abstraction. Islamic Persian art was also notable for its profound emphasis on materials and craftsmanship, with artists laboring over intricate details and techniques to produce exquisite pieces of art.
One of the most conspicuous disparities between pre-Islamic and Islamic Persian art was the transition from figurative representation to abstract forms. Whereas pre-Islamic Persian art frequently featured human figures, animals, and natural elements, Islamic Persian art preferred to utilize abstract patterns, calligraphy, and geometric designs to convey significance and splendor. Another notable dissimilarity was the employment of materials, with Islamic Persian art incorporating more opulent and intricate materials such as gold, silver, and precious stones.
Nonetheless, despite these differences, there were also numerous continuities between pre-Islamic and Islamic Persian art. Both were distinguished by a robust emphasis on intricate design, craftsmanship, and beauty, as well as a dedication to articulating meaning and spirituality through artistic expression. In various respects, Islamic Persian art was erected upon the traditions and techniques of pre-Islamic art, whilst also introducing new styles and themes that reflected the cultural and religious shifts that followed the Islamic conquest.
The Safavid dynasty, a royal house that held sway over Iran from 1501 to 1736 CE, is regarded as one of the most significant cultural and artistic contributors in Persian history. Emerging from a prolonged period of political and religious turmoil, the Safavids took shape under the leadership of Ismail I, a scion of Sheikh Safi al-Din and the founder of the Safaviyya Sufi order. Ismail, I laid the foundations for a centralized government and declared himself the Shah of Iran, marking the beginning of a Shia Islamic dynasty that would leave a profound mark on Persian culture and history.
One of the key legacies of the Safavid dynasty was its lasting impact on Persian art and architecture. The Safavids presided over a renaissance in artistic expression, marked by a proliferation of magnificent buildings and public spaces. From the resplendent Shah Mosque in Isfahan to the Ali Qapu Palace, the Safavids left a legacy of stunning architectural achievements that continue to awe visitors today. In addition to their architectural contributions, the Safavids also played a crucial role in promoting Persian art forms such as miniature painting and calligraphy, which remain an integral part of Persian cultural heritage to this day.
Major achievements in art and architecture during the Safavid dynasty
The era of Safavid rule denotes a consequential epoch in the annals of Iran, especially regarding the realm of art and architecture. At this juncture, a discernible form of Persian art materialized, which mirrored the opulent cultural legacy of the land. The Safavid dynasty’s most noteworthy feat was the progression of the art of miniature painting, which was characterized by intricacy and meticulousness. The paintings were replete with depictions of Persian literature and poetry, typically portrayed in vibrant hues and exhibiting delicate brushstrokes, thereby evoking a sense of exquisiteness.
Beyond the art of miniature painting, the Safavid dynasty also stands as an eminent patron of the realm of architecture. Take, for instance, the Shah Mosque – an exceptional exemplar of this union – erected within the confines of Isfahan during the reign of Shah Abbas I. Notable for its awe-inspiring and stunning design, the mosque boasts a grand and imposing entrance, an expansive central courtyard, and an intricate pattern of tiles. Additionally, the Safavid dynasty commissioned the construction of several other illustrious buildings, such as the Ali Qapu palace, the Chehel Sotoun palace, and the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan.
Another remarkable triumph of the Safavid dynasty lay in its unparalleled contribution to the art of carpet weaving. Persian carpets of the time were renowned for their intricate designs and unparalleled quality, quickly attaining popularity across the globe. Furthermore, the Safavid dynasty played a vital role in the growth and development of the art of calligraphy, with several renowned calligraphers of the period producing works of awe-inspiring magnificence.
Examples of Safavid art and architecture
The dynasty of Safavid, which governed Iran from 1501 until 1736, presented significant contributions to the universe of art and architecture, gaining worldwide recognition for their innovative and proficient craftsmanship. The Safavids showcased an exceptional appreciation for the arts, fostering artistic and cultural accomplishments that thrived under their reign, resulting in a fusion of Islamic and Persian elements that gave rise to an idiosyncratic and distinctive style that still evokes marvel today.
One of the most remarkable instances of Safavid architecture, the Shah Mosque, also referred to as the Imam Mosque, was erected in Isfahan during the reign of Shah Abbas I. This mosque is noted for its extraordinary entrance, central courtyard, and intricate tilework, all of which contribute to its architectural magnificence. In addition to the Shah Mosque, the Safavid dynasty undertook the construction of a multitude of other notable edifices, such as the Ali Qapu palace, the Chehel Sotoun palace, and the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan.
Safavid artistic expressions incorporated painting, calligraphy, and textiles, among other things. The potentates of Safavid displayed remarkable ardor for the arts, prompting them to commission numerous astonishing instances of miniature painting. The intricacies, vivacity of hues, and judicious attention paid to perspective distinguish these works.
In the same vein, the Safavid lineage produced some of the most aesthetically pleasing carpets in existence. Safavid carpets gained global recognition for their sophisticated patterns and superior workmanship. These carpets are feted for their opulent shades and meticulous knotting, culminating in a textile that is both sumptuous and long-lasting.
Influence of the Safavid dynasty on Persian art
The Safavid realm had a momentous influence on the advancement and transformation of Iranian artistry. With the backing of the Safavid overlords, Iranian artistry attained unprecedented heights of inventiveness and ingenuity, notably in the domains of pictorial art, calligraphy, and rug fabricating.
One of the most outstanding offerings of the Safavid empire to Iranian artistry was the rise of miniature painting as a prevalent art genre. The Safavid emperors were great benefactors of the arts and contracted numerous adept artists to produce exquisite miniature paintings that portrayed sundry aspects of life in the Safavid domain. These minute paintings were distinguished by their intricate minutiae, lively hues, and proficient utilization of viewpoint.
Amidst the creative realm, calligraphy was a notable artistry that blossomed throughout the Safavid era. Revered as masters of their craft, calligraphers’ works of art were utilized to enhance various surfaces, from written manuscripts to the stunning walls of mosques. The Safavid calligraphers, renowned for their gracious and fluid calligraphy, were held in high esteem, their masterpieces were considered nothing short of fine art.
Adding to the splendor, carpet weaving was another domain of artistry that the Safavid dynasty strongly influenced. Distinguished for their intricate patterns, premium-grade materials, and captivating hues, Safavid carpets were the talk of the town. With the Safavid rulers’ backing, many skilled carpet weavers were commissioned to create exquisite carpets for their lavish palaces and grandiose mosques, and these carpets endure as some of the most enchanting and priceless pieces of Persian art in modern times.
The History of Art in Persia dates from the remote ages of the ” Four ancient monarchies,” of which Persia is the only one now existing. The long duration of Persia as a separate and generally independent kingdom has been less owing to its power of resisting attacks from without than to the faculty always shown of absorbing its temporary conquerors.
Thus the conquests of Alexander in ancient times, and those of Moguls, Arabs, and Afghans more recently, have each left Persia comparatively unchanged. A large proportion of the inhabitants at the present day, especially in the north and north-west, are of Turkish (Turkistan) origin, and still preserve the language and to some extent the features of their ancestors, while at the same time they are nationally as thoroughly Persian as the rest of the community.
One great cause of this in more modern times is doubtless what may be called the sectarian nature of the national creed ; the Shiah, as opposed to the Sunni, form of Mahommedanism. This sectarianism has no doubt had a great effect in keeping alive the feeling of nationality with which the country has always been impressed, and in preventing union with the native mussulman states.
A continuous national existence has probably favorably influenced the development of art among the people. Before the time of Alexander they had reached a degree of perfection in architecture and sculpture which can still be appreciated in the magnificent ruins of Persepolis, the style of which at once recalls the well-known sculptures from Nineveh.
Probably nowhere else does a more splendid monument of former grandeur now exist. The tomb of Cyrus, the ruins of Pasargadae, the Takht-i-Sulaiman, the Naksh-i-Rustam, and other remains show moreover that during the same period, the artistic skill of the Persians was not confined to Persepolis alone.
The rock sculptures and ruins of Shapur (Sapor) a.d. 238 attest the existence of a similar although degenerated art in the time of the Roman empire. Of the centuries immediately after the Arab conquest few specimens of Persian art now remain, owing to the works being executed in more perishable material than rock and marble.
Among the oldest remains of this period are probably the ornamental tiles with which the domes and walls of the mosques were decorated. In these the influence of the new religion is naturally very manifest. These tiles appear to be an imitation of a peculiar kind of earthenware with a beautiful metallic lustre, which was made in Persia certainly 600, and possibly 2000, years ago.
From the earliest time until the present day Persian art has retained a distinct characteristic style little influenced by contact with other nations. The only exceptions are the results of the importation of Chinese porcelain in the 16th and 17th centuries, and of Cashmere shawls about the same period, both which importations have continued to be closely imitated in Persia.
A few articles in bronze (one is in the South Kensington museum) are probably the only other things now extant belonging to the same age as the earthenware above referred to almost
all the other old objects now to be found in the country date from the time of Shah Abbas the great (a.d. 1582) in whose reign Persian manufactures attained a high, perhaps their highest, degree of excellence.
That the taste for art has long been widely spread among the Persians is shown by the great pains taken to ornament articles of daily use and of little intrinsic value. This fact will be apparent on the most cursory examination of the varied collection in the museum nor has the taste by any means diminished, still less died out, in the country. Some of the textile fabrics of the present day compare not unfavorably with the most ancient specimens, as also some kinds of metal work.
The earthenware on the other hand, as an examination of the collection in the museum will show, has greatly degenerated. The decay of this and of some other manufactures dates from the universal disturbance and anarchy which accompanied the overthrow of the Safavian dynasty by the Afghans in the last century.
Persia is in all probability the country from which the Arabs derived the arts afterwards developed by them in Spain and else-where. The successors and followers of Mahomed were after all but rude Bedouins, who gradually acquired culture from contact with the more refined countries which they overran.
The powerful Abbasid Khalifs of Bagdad no doubt summoned to their court men of science and learning from all the countries under their sway ; Persia furnishing them with architects and other artists. Skilled Persian workmen were no doubt employed in large numbers in decorating the mosques and palaces in the Arab capital, situated as it was on the very frontier of their own country.
Thence we believe arose the so-called Arabian or Arabesque style of ornament, afterwards so widely spread and now – so well known. The peculiar pendant ornamentation of vaults and niches, of which the Alhambra is so typical an example, is identical in style with that used throughout Persia down to the present day and specimens have been found in the ruins of Rhages (as known as Ray), a city finally destroyed 600 years ago.
Persia, always an artistic country, could hardly have borrowed it from her rude conquerors. The Arabs no doubt modified the art derived from the Persians, the modifications being much influenced by their intense hatred of anything approaching idolatry.
The Persians however, even during their greatest religious fervour, never lost their taste for all kinds of ornament, including representations of actual natural objects. The Arabs themselves were probably never an artistic people, although many of their rulers were distinguished patrons and propagators of art and science.
It is far from improbable that even the Alhambra itself was chiefly the work of Persians, who stood to the Arabs in much the same relation that the Greeks did to the Romans. The presence of a considerable colony of Persians in Spain in the time of the Moors is attested by a document assigning the town Rioja to the Persians as their place of residence. This fact was recently brought to notice by a Spanish traveler in Persia, Señor Rivadeneyra.
Unlike the Arabs the Persians have always been, and still are, artistic. After every great political convulsion art naturally declined, but only to arise in some new form as soon as the country had enjoyed a period of settled internal government and external peace.
The Turanian or Turkish element in the population, although politically and religiously amalgamated with the Persian, has however never imbibed the artistic idiosyncrasies of the latter. Works of art are almost exclusively confined to the parts of the country inhabited by the old Aryan stock ; that is to say, to the center, south and east.
The chief seats of the manufacture of textile fabrics have always been Kurdistan, Yazd and Kerman; of earthenware, Kashan, Nain and the neighbourhood; of engraved copper work, Kashan ; of painting, armour and engraved steel, and brass, Isfahan ; of jewellery, wood, mosaic and enameling, Shiraz ; and of wood carving, Abadeh (is a city and capital of Abadeh County, in Fars Province).